Temperate Hardwood

Temperate Hardwood

Temperate forests are located between the tropics and the polar regions in both the Northern and Southern hemisphere.  They have 4 distinct seasons and a well-defined winter.  Temperate forests include a mix of trees that belong to 3 groups.  

Deciduous trees, such as maple, oaks, chestnut, beech and elm.  

Coniferous trees which have seeds developed in cones such as pines, firs and cedars.  

Broad Leaved evergreens which have flat, leathery leaves such as olive, holly, tea and eucalyptus.

Temperate forests are located in the Eastern United States, Canada, Europe, China, Japan and certain parts of Russia.

Temperate forests grow between the tropics and the Polar Regions in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. They have four distinct seasons with a well-defined winter. Temperate forests have a moderate climate. They are home to many plant and animal species. Temperate forests contain two layers of trees and an understory of shrubs below. Because the trees are parted at the top, sunlight is able to reach the ground which enables plants to grow. Forests can vary due to the tree within them, which is based on location.

North America - Sustainable Resource

The hardwood sawmilling and processing industry, which depends upon this resource, is the largest producer of sawn hardwood in the world. In recent years the USA has substantially increased exports and through careful management of its forests. The United States is growing more hardwood each year than it harvests, ensuring reliable and long ter supplies, with sustainability the watch word for natural materials. Net volume of hardwood growing stock in the USA has increased from 5,200 million m3 in 1953 to just under 11,300 million m3 in 2007 (source Resource Planning Act Assessment 2007). Temperate forests include a mix of trees that belong to three main groups.

Deciduous Trees

Deciduous trees lose their leaves when the days grow shorter and the weather turns cold. The leaves grow back when the weather warms in the spring and the days grow longer. Trees like maples, oaks, chestnuts, beeches, and elms are examples of deciduous trees.

Coniferous Trees

Coniferous trees have seeds that develop in cones. These trees usually have needles for leaves. The trees lose the needles gradually so that the tree is never bare. Coniferous trees are also called evergreens, because they are green all the time. Pines, firs, and cedars are examples of coniferous trees.


Broad-leaved evergreens grow in temperate forests in warm parts of the world like New Zealand, Australia, southwest South America, and the Mediterranean. These trees have flat, leathery leaves. These trees do not lose their leaves in the winter. The leaves are waxy, which helps keep them from losing too much water in winter when the air is dry. Olive, holly, tea, and eucalyptus trees are all broad–leaved evergreens.

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